André Breton and Nicos Engonopoulos - Charles Fourier and Simon Bolivar: The Surrealistic Revival of the Ode
The study examines two surrealistic voices, those of André Breton, founder of the surrealistic movement in France, and of the Greek poet Nicos Engonopoulos, as they meet each other in their preoccupation with the literary genre of the ode. In 1942 Engonopoulos wrote an extended poem entitled Bolivar, dedicated to the South American revolutionary leader Simon Bolivar. Breton, in his turn, composed in 1947 an ode dedicated to Charles Fourier, the 19th century socialist utopist whose writings Breton discovered while exiled in America during the second world war. This ode was published in the collection Signe ascendant (1948). The two poems present significant similarities concerning the theme and the morphology, and show common points in the reception of the two respective historical personalities and their signification. The poems are long compositions, alternating poetry and prose. They engage social subjects, the first by the revolutionary action of Bolivar and the second by the social theories of Fourier. The study co-examines the two odes; the way they represent the two personalities and the dialogue between the poets and the historical personalities.
Keywords: Poetry, Surrealism, Ode, Dialogue
Affiliated, Department of Prescholarly Studies, University of Athens